List Of Nobel Prize 2018 Winner With their Field Full Details
Nobel Prizes, one of the most prestigious honour across the globe, were announced in October, 2018 in five out of six traditional categories or fields- Medicine, Physics, Chemistry, Peace and Economics.
The Nobel Prize for Literature was not announced this year for some sex abuse scandal in the Swedish Academy of the Noble awards. This Nobel for Literature is espected to be announced next year with the 2019 Nobel Prizes.
Medicine or Physiology
James Allison of the USA and Tasuku Honjo of Japan were declared the joint winners of the 2018 Nobel Prize for Medicine on October 1, 2018 by the Karolinska Institute, Stockholm for their path-breaking discoveries about how to harness and manipulate the immune system to fight cancer.
Dr. Allison, the professor at the University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center and Dr. Honjo, the professor at Kyoto University successfully showed how different strategies for inhibiting the brakes on the immune system could be used in the treatment of cancer.
Dr. Allison worked on a protein known as CTLA-4 and realised that the blockade of it would bring a brake, unleashing immune system to attack tumors.
Dr. Honjo separately discovered a second protein named PD-1 and found that it too acted as an immune system brake having a different mechanism.
Arthur Ashkin of the USA, Gerard Mourou of France and Donna Strickland of Canada shared the Nobel Prize for Physics this year for inventing optical lasers that paved the way for advanced precision tools used in corrective eye surgery and micro machining.
Arthur Ashkin carried the half of the prize for inventing optical tweezers’ that grab particles, atoms and molecules with their laser beam fingers.
Mr. Ashkin of Bell Laboratories became the oldest Nobel laureate, winning the honour at 96.
Gerard Mourou and Donna Strickland shared half of the Nobel Prize for their research centered on developing the shortest and the most intense laser pulses ever created by humans, paving the way for the precision instruments used today in corrective eye surgery and industrial applications.
# Arthur Ashkin became the oldest winner of the Nobel Prize, winning it at the age of 96.
# Donna Strickland, the professor in the University of Waterloo, Canada, is only the third woman to win a Nobel for Physics after Marie Curie in 1903 and Maria Goeppert Mayer in 1963.
Two American scientists-Frances Arnold of the California Institute of Technology and George Smith of the university of Missouri and a British scientist Gregory winter of Britain’s MRC Laboratory of Molecular Biology were declared winners of the Noble Prize for Chemsitry on October 3,2018 by the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences Stockholm for harnessing the power of evolution to generate novel Proteins used in different fields.
Frances Arnold was awarded the half of the Nobel Prize for transforming science by using the principal of evolution – genetic change and selection and to evolve new types of proteins.
George Smith and Gregory half of the Prize.
# Frances Arnold is only the fifth woman to win a Nobel for Chemistry.
Denis Mukwege, doctor who helps victims of sexual violence in the Democratic Republic of Congo and Nadia Murad, a Yazidi rights activist and survivor of sexual slavery by the Islamic State terror group were declared the joint winners of the Noble Peace Prize-2018 on October 5 in Oslo for their efforts to end the use of sexual violence as a weapon of war.
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Dr. Mukwege, a gynaecologist is generally referred to as ‘Dr. Miracle’ for his healing ability to treat the victims of sexual violence. He provides medical treatment including surgeries to thousands of sexual violence victims in his Panzi hospital in the eastern Congo city of Bukavu.
Dr. Mukwege, a past winner of the United Nations Human Rights Prize and the European Parliament’s Sakharov Prize, dedicated his Noble award to all women affected by rape and sexual violence.
Nadia Murad is an advocate for the Yazidi minority in lraq and for refugees and women’ rights in general.
In 2016 Nadia was named the UN’s first Goodwill Ambassador for Dignity of Survivors of Human Trafficking.
# Dr. Mukwege is the first Congolese to win the Nobel prize.
# Nadia Murad is the first Irani awardee of the Nobel Peace Prize.
US economists duo William Nordhaus and Paul Romer jointly won the Nobel Prize, 2018 in Economics on October 8 for developing ‘green growth’ models that show how innovation and climate policies can be integrated with economic growth. Their researches proved helpful in answering basic questions over how to promote long term sustainable prosperity.
Paul Romer of New York University’s Stern School of Business is best known for his work on “endogenous growth”- a theory rooted in investing in Knowledge and human capital.
William Nordhaus, a professor of economics at Yale University was the first person to create a ‘quantitative model’ meant to connect the economic growth with the climate.
Nobel Prize in Economies is originally called ‘Sveriges Riskbank Prize in Economic Sciences’. It was not part of original Nobel awards given in the fields of Chemistry, Physics, Physiology or Medicine, Peace and Literature as per the will of Alfred Nobel in 1895.
The honour in economics was instituted in 1968 by Sveriges Riksbank, Sweden’s Central bank in memory of Alfred Nobel.
Important points to remember:
- The Nobel Prizes will be presented on December 10, this year on the occasion of the death anniversary of Alfred Nobel in Stockholm.
- Only Nobel Peace prize will be given in Oslo, the capital of Norway.
- The Nobel prize in each category carries a prize money worth nine million Swedish Kronor (about one million US dollar).